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In Germany, calls are going out for the Catholic Church to rethink some of its basic principles, including the rule of celibacy for priests.
Many say the German church is experiencing a period of crisis. It's been rocked by sex and abuse scandals and no longer even has enough priests to serve its parishes. These days, even more traditional-minded Catholics in Germany have begun calling for far-reaching reform
Gerhard Streicher is a psychologist in the town of Jena, south of Berlin. On this particular day, he wears a comfortable sweater. But he used to wear a white collar to work. Streicher was a priest until he told his bishop about the seven-year relationship he'd been having with a woman — the woman who is now his wife.
The thing that actually made me a good priest pushed me to the margins of the church.Gerhard Streicher, former Catholic priest
"It made me a better priest," he says. "I understood people and their lives better. But celibacy was a big contradiction — the thing that actually made me a good priest pushed me to the margins of the church."
Many say the celibacy rule is partly to blame for a shortage of clergy. By 2020, two-thirds of parishes in Germany might not have their own priests. Celibacy keeps young men from entering the seminary, they say, and prevents the church from ordaining married men who feel a calling later in life.
Theologians and even well-known conservative Catholic politicians, like Hermann Kues, are asking the church to rethink celibacy, especially since it's not a doctrinal requirement.
"The church doesn't change very quickly and we know that, but we think we've come to a point where we have to demand it," he says. "Celibacy rules were originally introduced on practical grounds, and so I think that they can be changed for practical reasons as well."
Most German Catholics agree with the calls for change, in several areas. Surveys show that big majorities disagree with official church positions on the role of women, gays and lesbians, and sexuality in general. More than three-quarters of Catholics don't think celibacy makes sense anymore.
Andreas Schmidt, who attends mass at St. Hedwig's Cathedral in Berlin, is one of them.
"Celibacy should be the liberty of every priest and they should be able to decide," Schmidt says. "But I think it's good that the discussion has started and begun. I hope it's not stopped by the head of the church."
The church doesn't change very quickly and we know that, but we think we've come to a point where we have to demand it. ... Celibacy rules were originally introduced on practical grounds, and so I think that they can be changed for practical reasons as well.Hermann Kues, Catholic politician
A Part Of Catholic Identity
But Pope Benedict XVI, who's German himself, hasn't shown any sign he's willing to relax the rules. That's despite the fact that Catholic priests ordained in the Eastern Rite and some converts can be married.
Vatican reporter Francis Rocca of Religion News Service says celibacy for most priests is not likely to be phased out.
"No, not in our lifetimes and in any major way," he says. "I think that would be a fair prediction. The pope, and I'm sure the overwhelming number of cardinals and bishops, see celibacy as a very important part of Catholic identity."
Back in Jena, that's an identity that Streicher says he's glad he left behind. Although he still does go to church and his children were baptized.
"The church is like a mother to me and I have a lot to thank her for," he says. "But I don't do everything that my mother says. At some point, I grew up."
Streicher thinks the church doesn't want to touch the celibacy requirement because that might unleash an avalanche of change.
But he worries that if things stay the way they are, the church could become like a museum — lots of pretty objects, but not much life.