The violence with which the Egyptian security forces stormed anti-government camps and the still-rising death toll are both shocking and part of a multi-decade pattern in Egyptian history.
The Egyptian government has also declared a month-long "state-of-emergency," which recalls not only the month-long emergency declared this January, but also comes in the historical context of the 40-year-long "emergency," which gave sweeping powers to the country's president and security forces.
Ending that "emergency" was one of the key goals of the uprising that began in 2011 as part of the Arab Spring.
What does looking at unfolding events in Egypt in the context of its modern history suggest about the country's future?
- Samer Shehata, associate professor of Middle Eastern politics at the University of Oklahoma. His latest book is "Islamist Politics in the Middle East: Movements and Change."
This segment aired on August 15, 2013.