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Just Your Average Mass. Jail: It’s Overcrowded

BOSTON — The state’s budget crisis has provoked all kinds of dire predictions. Now, add this one: The chronic crisis of the state’s overcrowded jails and prisons is about to get worse.

Essex County Sheriff Frank Cousins in 2004 (AP)

"We're going to run out of money this year. We don't have enough," says Essex County Sheriff Frank Cousins, seen here in 2004. (AP)

Prisons are facing a fourth year of state budget cuts. And after the murder of a Woburn police officer by a prisoner released on parole, many state legislators are pushing for laws that would put more offenders behind bars for far longer sentences.

You Don’t Have Enough Cells

Frank Cousins has been the sheriff of Essex County for 15 years. He’s never had a day when his jail wasn’t overcrowded.

“This facility was designed for right around 550 people,” he says. “And they immediately double-bunked it, so this morning we’re at 1,138.”

Opened in 1991, the once “state-of-the-art” Middleton House of Corrections is now just your average American jail: it’s overcrowded. Across the country, the prisoner population has grown by 700 percent since 1972. Not one state has been able to build enough prisons and jails to keep up. And no one is even trying to anymore.

Yet, as sheriff, Cousins is expected to protect public safety, keep order in the jail and rehabilitate the crowd of inmates.

“I think that being the sheriff, other than being the commissioner of corrections or the governor, is probably the toughest job in the state,” he says while walking through the Middleton jail. A jail door closes after us with a loud metallic “thunk.”

Other jails in Massachusetts are far worse. On a recent day at the Bristol County Jail, it had 361 percent more inmates than it was designed to hold. You can see what overcrowding means when you go inside the gate of one of the modular, prefab units that make up the Middleton jail. The inmates and guards call it “Voke Two.”

“What do we have in here right now, 60 inmates? 74? 74,” says one of two guards who has the job of keeping all those inmates under control. Rows of double bunks and plastic bins that hold the inmates’ belongings swallow up most of the room. In the narrow lane of open space, we’re as cramped as commuters on the T at rush hour.

Mass. Prisons Population Growth, 1980-2008
Chart: Massachusetts prisons inmate population growth, 1980-2008

CLICK TO ENLARGE: Massachusetts prisons inmate population growth, 1980-2008 (WBUR)

“We can’t lock ‘em up,” says Capt. Peter Cignetti, who supervises Voke Two. “You can’t lock these people up because you don’t have enough cells?” I ask. “Right,” he says.

To get your own private 8-by-10-foot cell in Massachusetts you pretty much have to be considered special — either too dangerous or too much in danger to share all that precious space. By that rule, the inmates whose offenses have led them to be assigned here don’t rate. Even these guys don’t rate:

“This is where our offenses on children, women, sex crimes — they’re all in here,” Cignetti says. So too are gang members who have to be segregated from members of rival gangs. “There’s always something. We have to keep enemies away from each other.

“I have wheelchairs over here, I have people on crutches. Now I have a weapon, you know.

“We’ve got a lot of mentally ill that come in here. They’ll defecate themselves. They’re basically a 70 IQ, I can’t keep ‘em here. Well, what do I do with these guys?”

It’s a good question, but the guards and the sheriff don’t get to decide who belongs in jail. They just get to find some place to put them and control them.

And You Don’t Have Enough Money

Dominoes and whist, I’m told, are the most popular games in jail. Just as popular as the television in the corner. It’s tuned to “Jerry Springer,” the most popular show in the joint… along with “Cops.”

That may keep them busy, but if the jail is going to be more than a warehouse, Cousins says, he has to get the inmates into treatment and training and reentry programs. Cousins has only eight to nine months to do that before the average inmate finishes his sentence and gets out of jail, ready or not. But the sheriff says he’s handcuffed by the same laws that have overcrowded his jail in the first place.

“I’m not an advocate of any of these legislative things — ‘War on Crime,’ ‘War on Drugs,’ all of the ‘three strikes you’re out,’ that whole boot camp type stuff,” Cousins says. “All of that has been proved to be not an effective crime tool.”

Cousins is a former businessman. In terms of cost per inmate, he’s running the most efficient jail in the state, his data show. It costs Middleton only $25,000-plus a year per inmate. For state prisons and some other jails it’s almost twice that.

No one’s going to call the Republican sheriff soft on crime, either. Which makes it striking when he says we’re putting too many nonviolent offenders in jail who don’t belong there.

“I say the nuisance crimes that everybody reads in their local police blotter, the sheriffs are better served making them do community service,” he says. “And putting them on electronically monitored ankle bracelets instead of in cells, and having them on work release, paying victims issue restitution while they’re in our custody, and drug testing them and having a drug program.”

On top of overcrowding, his jail budget has been cut 13 percent in three years and he’s now facing yet another cut.

“We’re going to run out of money this year,” Cousins says in a moment of frustration. “We don’t have enough. You just can’t do it.”

Of so many of his 1,138 inmates he’s supposed to rehabilitate, the sheriff says, “These people are set up to fail.”

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  • Guest

    Would the jails still be overcrowded is non-violent offenders were granted parole? Or are there other complications with doing this?

  • Anonymous

    What are the relative costs of incarceration versus work release / monitoring / drug testing strategies?

    I’m going to guess the financial costs of managing and handling recidivism are fairly comparable, but it would be great if david’s series actually looked into the facts.

  • Azswingle

    Thanks for your story on this subject, which I heard this morning. I am an middle class mother, living in an upper middle to upper class town, and raised by hard working european parents. I am an educated person, yet sometimes we see family members, who grew up in same household, take the wrong turn. My brother did, after he served for this country, and could not get on track while fighting sleep problems and depression. He trusted friends he shouldn’t have, and after just 2 months involvement, ended up arrested in a drug bust, and is now in prison. He had a judge who at the end, rejected all compromises and all efforts of my brother to cooperate, and gave a harsh 3 years related to his crime. He was down to 1 year with the negotiations and we hoped he could have had community service. It would have suited his level of involvement and his big heart to help most anyone, including his friend in a wheelchair who got him in this mess to begin with.

    I hope this subject comes up more often as we often are talking about budgets. Putting so many in jail, esp many drug cases, does not prove to be “correcting” the behavior. The word correctional is totally missing. Isnt this a waste of money? Of course, those that harm others should be in a facility. But we only have one system, where we need various degrees. The division of heavy security, medium security and minimum security is hardly utilized.

    The other factor is as budgets are cut and jail and prisons have less funds, most people wouldn’t believe the conditions that already exist in these places. We are bordering on inhumane, if not already there. In the movies, they show a prisoner with a pillow and blanket. My brother had no pillow, no blanket, no socks and under fed. How does this help to rehabilitate? Wouldn’t this make anyone frustrated or even angry at the system? My brother is suppose to be in a camp as a means of moving out of the “min. security”. But his counselor wont look at the records that he has taught classes to the under educated, and had vistors every week , often more than once.

    The whole system that many middle and upper class never see, is just appalling. This is not justice. This is not corrective measures. And the poor and colored more often see this world way more than most. There is a big injustice here, and we wonder why they don’t feel motivated to vote, or become an upstanding citizen. they learn at a young age that we are not fair in this country.
    I would like to see more criticism about how this system works and more promotion to the few who actually have come up with better systems. I agree with what was mentioned in your article and what Cousins had to say. I am tired of fear being the driving force in politics. I lived in CA when they past 3 strikes. I voted against it. Where is the evolution of the human being and treating persons with respect? I don’t understand how people can preach being christian and yet not respect their neighbor? If we learn to share resources, be less greedy as a society, reckognize when someone has made a mistake or acted to harm others, then maybe we can make better choices as a society that will also impact our pocketbooks.

  • Pam Burgess

    Thanks for the informative article. I hope to see more on this issue. I’d like to know what the governors thoughts and ideas are on this.
    P. B. Peabody

  • Nicolecarnevale

    what about the inmates housed in the gym in canoes they call them…very inhumane…this sheriff is a piece of work. i used to work there and left to work for the doc at the state level much much better. they need to go through that jail and cut all the spending that is wasted….

  • whoelse

    I’m not an advocate for this boot camp mentality either and think jail should be reserved for those that are clearly a danger to society.

    I have a friend who’s judgment is sometimes impaired due to a mental illness.  He’s a gentle soul, but is misunderstood.  He had been writing to a person who then turned around and had a restraining ordered issued again.  This person never asked my friend to stop.  Instead, he went directly to court and sought an order which was granted.  Six months later, my friend allegdly violated the order, even though there was never any direct or third party contact.  He’ll have his day in court to prove his innocence, but until then, he’s spending 60 days in jail.

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