WBUR

Emerging Tick-Borne Diseases Causing Concern In Mass.

Lyme disease isn’t the only illness carried by ticks in Massachusetts. There are two other tick-borne diseases causing increased concern: Babesiosis and Anaplasmosis, and scientists on Cape Cod and the Islands are tracking them closely, collecting ticks for analysis.

“Ooh! We have activity. Ooh. This is scary,” said Cape Cod Cooperative Extension entomologist Larry Dapsis as he dragged a pole with a white cloth on the end through leaf litter, weeds and grass along a wooded trail in Brewster recently.

“That is a male deer tick, adult, a female adult. We have a little nymph, which is the size of a poppy seed, that bites,” Dapsis said as he pointed out ticks on the collection cloth.

WBUR’s Steve Brown caught up with Dapsis again this week in Buzzards Bay, to talk to him about the emerging tick-borne diseases — first, Babesiosis, which can cause serious illness and occasionally be fatal.

Larry Dapsis: Actually, Babesiosis is really kind of a form of malaria. It’s a parasite that invades your red blood cells. And so some of the symptomology of Babesiosis is fever, chills, anemia, things like that. It has our attention because Babesiosis  and Anaplasmosis are both increasing in Massachusetts. They’re far lower than Lyme at this point. But of note, over half the cases in the state of Babesiosis occur on the Cape and Islands. The other thing that we point out to people is that you can have co-infection, meaning that these ticks can carry more than one pathogen. In fact, with these nymph stage ticks that are basically the size of a poppy seed, in our research, we find that upwards of 15 percent of these ticks can be carrying Lyme plus one of these other two pathogens.

Steve Brown: We’re doing this interview right now not too far from the Cape Cod Canal, on the mainland side of the Cape Cod Canal. You say that the Cape and the Islands are ripe for these diseases. Can we consider the canal a barrier of some sorts? Is that keeping it on that side — over on the other side — and should we be concerned that it is going to spread here into southeastern Massachusetts and the rest of the state?

Larry Dapsis, entomologist for Barnstable County (Steve Brown/WBUR)

Well, ticks don’t swim across the canal. That’s a fact. But one of the ways ticks disperse is on birds. So ticks that are infected with these other two pathogens can easily be brought over here and then infect the host reservoir population, which we think is mice and other small rodents.

Tell me exactly what it is you do when you go out in the field.

We’re working with a particular device to feed deer and try and kill the ticks on the deer before they lay eggs, and things like that. But as part of this project, we have 14 different sites on the Cape and the Islands for surveillance. So it gives us the opportunity to look at distribution of these diseases in the tick population. We send those ticks then to UMass Amherst and they analyze them. And what we’re looking at right now is how these pathogens differ from site to site and year to year. The headline on this is that these pathogens are more widely distributed than previously thought.

Are there hot spots in other parts of the state for these other diseases?

Anaplasmosis is kind of interesting in that regard, in that what really jumps off the page is Berkshire County in the southwestern part of the state. So while there are other reportable cases in other counties around the state, Berkshire County kind of pops.

We are in a wooded area right now. Where is a tick going to get on me?

As you look around, we are in perfect tick habitat. It’s shady, woods, higher humidity. Ticks don’t fly, they don’t jump, they don’t fall out of trees. These nymph stage ticks are really found in the leaf litter, so the first point of attachment is likely to be your footwear. And then they would crawl up until they find a spot that they choose to settle down and feed.

Talk about some ways that you can prevent getting a tick.

In terms of personal protection, there’s kind of a laundry list of things for people to consider. As you are, wearing light-colored clothing, long pants. It’s recommended that you can tuck those pants into your socks.

If I were wearing socks.

If you were wearing socks. But I haven’t actually seen many people make that bold fashion statement on the Cape. Certainly when you come in from outdoors, tick check. It is mandatory. It’s recommended you take your clothes and throw them in the dryer for, say, 20 minutes. When ticks are exposed to high temperatures and low humidity, it kind of changes their attitude about biting. The thing I tell people to consider, especially on their footwear and their trousers, is to use a repellent spray based on a chemical called permethrin. Probably the silver lining in this whole thing is that tick-borne diseases are entirely preventable.

How can people find that right balance — be able to enjoy being outdoors, but prevent getting a tick-borne illness?

What I emphasize to people is don’t fear your environment. You should enjoy the outdoors. But understand your environment.

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  • Alexander Davis

    The June 21 New England Journal of Medicine features
    a review article on babesiosis, another disease carried by the deer tick, which
    can be fatal and in some areas in southern New England is now almost as common
    as Lyme disease. The article states that the spread of this disease has been
    fueled by the expansion of the deer population, thus “elimination of deer
    populations sharply reduces the risk of infection but is difficult to
    implement.”  Certainly animal rights
    groups oppose deer herd thinning and point out that the mouse is the source of
    the bacteria. This is true but only immature forms of ticks can feed on mice:
    adult ticks will not feed on rodents because they need blood from larger
    mammals. Without eggs from the adult ticks, there are no immature tick forms.  Thus on Monhegan Island, Lyme disease was
    successfully controlled by eliminating the deer, and this broke the tick cycle.
    The mice are still there. Also, CT expert Dr. Kirby Stafford writes that it is
    doubtful that after deer removal the deer tick can be maintained on medium
    sized hosts like raccoons, which frequently remove ticks by grooming. In
    Bridgeport CT, lowering the deer population 74% resulted in a 92% decrease in
    nymphal deer ticks. In Groton CT the deer population was reduced from 77 per
    square mile to 10 per square mile, and the Lyme Disease incidence decreased by
    83%.

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Dolores-Claesson/1222716302 Dolores Claesson

    ‘Lymies…I would get all these tests…Western Blot for Borrelia, also test for Borrelia hermsii, and Babesia duncani and microti and Quest can test for duncani, Bartonella henselae and quintana, Brucella, Tularemia, Coxiella burnetti or Q fever, many rickettsias ie Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Typhus, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, EBV, CMV, all Coxsackie viruses, and now Powassan virus and its cousin Deer Tick Virus, HSV 1 and 2, HHV 1-8 if available. Parvovirus B -19 papillomaviruses, Toxoplasmosis, Chlamydias and Mycoplasmas and get genetic tests for hypercoagulation like Mthfr and Factor V leiden, and test all your IgG subclasses 1-4, and CD 57 and C3a and C4a and CBS mutations and HPU/KPU and mold testing since so many of us have issues with mold. ECP or eoisonophil cationic protein seems to suggest to docs that you have babesia. Also transfer growth factor b-1 and Beta Strep. High CD 57 counts may be associated with Beta Strep. Heavy metals have a part in this and we are low in Secosteroid D or vitamin D and some are low in Potassium and others iron. Many are deficient in all amino acids. Our hormones are a mess and the whole HPA Hypothalmic pituitary axis is the problem. We can have probs with our adrenals and thryoid…we do not convert T4 to T3 and in my case I have high reverse T3 or rT3. We are quite low in testosterone as well. Check out every hormone in your body, amino acids and vitamins and minerals. There are over 100 viruses we can get from a tick and also many parasites. The labs that insurance covers can’t find a parasite when we can see it under the microscope. Quest at Nichols Institute in Valencia California can culture samples and might even be able to distinguish Brucella suis from melitensis or arbortus. We also need an MRI of our brain with and without contrast. Many lymies are showing up with pituitary adenomas and pheomchromocytomas. Make sure that you do not have these. I have spent years trying to figure out what is in us and so far this is what I have seen. Unfortunately when your physician may take years to order all the necessary tests. Make sure you get tested sooner rather than later. One more thing …..you may get tested for Brucella today and 2 years from now may show up IgM positive. The immune system is overwhelmed with all these pathogens.’See More

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Dolores-Claesson/1222716302 Dolores Claesson

    Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2003;115 Suppl 3:61-7.
    [Sero-epidemiological studies of zoonotic infections in hunters--comparative analysis with veterinarians, farmers, and abattoir workers].
    [Article in German]
    Deutz A, Fuchs K, Nowotny N, Auer H, Schuller W, Stünzner D, Aspöck H, Kerbl U, Köfer J.
    SourceFachabteilung 8C – Veterinärwesen beim Amt der Steiermärkischen Landesregierung, Graz. armin.deutz@stmk.gv.at
    AbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate seroprevalences to zoonotic pathogens in hunters, to compare the results with other predisposed occupational groups already investigated and to propose preventive measures. Blood samples were taken from 146 male and 3 female hunters from the provinces of Styria and Burgenland in the south-east of Austria and anamnestic data were obtained using a questionnaire. The serological investigations included the following bacterial, viral and parasitic zoonotic agents or zoonoses, respectively (antibody prevalence rates in brackets): borreliosis (IgG 42%, IgM 7%), brucellosis (1%), chlamydiosis (3%), ehrlichiosis (IgG 15%, IgM 3%), leptospirosis (10%), tularaemia (3%), Q fever (0%), encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV, 15%), Puumala-Hantavirus (10%), Newcastle Disease virus (4%), Echinococcus multilocularis/E. granulosus (5%/11%), toxocariasis (17%). Particularly striking in comparison with the control group and the veterinarians, farmers and slaughterhouse workers examined in earlier projects were the high seroprevalences to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Ehrlichia spp., Leptospira interrogans, E. granulosus and E. multilocularis, encephalomyocarditis, Puumala-Hantavirus and Newcastle Disease virus as well as to Brucella abortus and Francisella tularensis. The present study indicates that hunters are especially exposed to zoonotic pathogens.

  • Nank59

    I have Lyme and Babesiosis.  Bitten by nymph tick in June 2011 and have been fighting this illness since late August 2011 – once I figured out what was going on.  Tiny black ticks the size of a poppy seed attached to my calf, just where the hem of my pants landed on my calf.  Not being familiar with Lyme Disease, I had no idea to check after visiting a National Mountain Park in Tennessee.

    This is serious business!  Please be aware!

  • Burdge52

    I am an Electrician
    and I would have never let these tests for for lyme disease become the standard for testing!
    many fifth graders are smart enough to know that these test are bogus!!!!
    WHO ARE THE MORONS OR CROOKS THAT PASSED THIS?????
    http://www.actionlyme.org/DEARBORN_WHO_SAID_WHAT.htm

  • http://lyme-aware.org Lyme-Aware

    Thank you for running a series on Lyme Disease.  It is so greatly appreciated!!!!

    There are so many affected by this disease that deserve to be heard.  As a Lyme Survivor, I will try my best to spread awareness.  It is a travesty that so many still continue to suffer! 

    Thanks once again! 
    Lydia
    http://www.lyme-aware.org

  • http://profile.yahoo.com/FMC567LV2V5THDC7AWDJZSZ3NM Alexander

    At the panel discussion Rep.
    Linsky pointed out the power of the so-called animal rights lobby which opposed
    decreasing the deer population to control Lyme disease. In 1930 there were
    300,000 deer in the US. Today there are 30 million. We have lost our rights. We
    can no longer enjoy nature, and we watch people fall one-by-one from Lyme
    disease. We are fencing ourselves in and dousing ourselves with potentially
    harmful pesticides.  Ticks from just one
    deer produce 450,000 tick eggs per season as reported at the panel discussion.
    No wonder Lyme disease is out of control. And these deer ticks carry other
    diseases as well. On Monhegan Island Maine, there was a Lyme epidemic but it
    was stopped by eliminating the deer. The deer lobby tries to blame the mice,
    but the adult ticks necessary to perpetuate the species will not feed on a
    rodent.

  • Med

    Entirely preventable? Maybe if you live in a castle tower your whole life.

  • http://profile.yahoo.com/FMC567LV2V5THDC7AWDJZSZ3NM Alexander

    As noted in The Boston Globe 7/7/12, animal rights activists do not care about human lives and safety. When deer herd thinning was necessary to prevent soil erosion and water degredation at Qaubbin reservoir, deer-huggers chained themselves to radiators in MDC offices. Currently they spread lying pro-deer propaganda.  They believe that deer have the right to give little children horrific diseases. 

    • Steven Bannister

      I have deer bouncing around my suburban street like something out of Walt Disney’s Bambi, they are everywhere! I love all animals of course, but the deer population seems out of control – and surprise, surprise, just 2 weeks ago I contracted Lyme which is why I’m on this page! I’m taking antibiotics now – hopefully I caught it in time….

  • LymeTickTest

    Hi I just
    wanted to let you know that there is finally an at-home tick testing kit that
    allows you to test with great accuracy the presence of the Lyme Disease bacteria
    in ticks. It is a great early warning tool! Please contact me at 1 855 TICK TEST
    or lymeticktest.com for more
    information.

    Dan
    Wolff

  • http://twitter.com/constancek67 Constance Kilsurmart

    MAD DOG MILLIOAIRE aka Punyamurtula Kishore MD is definitely going to prison and when he is released, he will be turned over to Immigration authorities for deportation back to India .

    MAD DOG MILLIONAIRE aka PUNYAMURTULA KISHORE HAS BEEN INDICTED BY 3 DIFFERENT GRAND JURYS , SUFFOLK COUNTY, MIDDLESEX COUNTY AND BARNSTABLE COUNTY FOR MEDICAL INSURANCE FRAUD .CORRUPTION , LYING , CHEATING , and STEALING from Mass Health , Medicare , Medicaid and private insurance companies .

    Exploiting his emoloyees and patients. Billing insurance companies without examining or seeing the patients.30 years of CORRUPTION , LIES, CHEATING AND STEALING is Punyamurtula Kishore MD aka Mad Dog Millionaire’s trademark . He was involved in Corruption when he was the Medical Director at the Massachusetts Dept. of Correction , Martha Eliot Health Ctr , Roxbury Comprehensive Health Ctr. and his own Medical Practice , Preventive Medicine Associates.formerly Addiction Medicine Associates.

    He used two entities he created on paper that never existed called the National library of Addictions and the American College of Addiction to advocate his emergence in the field of addiction medicine. This unscrupulous MD used and exploited his patients and employees for financial wealth. The only thing that MAD DOG MILLIONAIRE aka Punyamurtula Kishore cared about was making money at the expense of someone elses misery.

    Read more: Document outlines drug doctor’s alleged Medicaid fraud scheme – Quincy, MA – Wicked Local Quincy http://www.patriotledger.com/topstories/x952639814/Document-outlines-drug-doctor-s-alleged-Medicaid-fraud-scheme#ixzz20hNvHCuL

  • Respondjustice

    Federal Laws

    Although no federal law directly addresses bullying, in some cases, bullying overlaps with discriminatory harassment when it is based on race, national origin, color, sex, age, disability, or religion. When bullying and harassment overlap, federally-funded schools (including colleges and universities) have an obligation to resolve the harassment. When the situation is not adequately resolved, the U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights and the U.S. Department of Justice’s Civil Rights Division may be able to help.

    Are there federal laws that apply to bullying?

    At present, no federal law directly addresses bullying. In some cases, bullying overlaps with discriminatory harassment which is covered under federal civil rights laws enforced by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) and the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ). No matter what label is used (e.g., bullying, hazing, teasing), schools are obligated by these laws to address conduct that is:

    Severe, pervasive or persistent
    Creates a hostile environment at school. That is, it is sufficiently serious that it interferes with or limits a student’s ability to participate in or benefit from the services, activities, or opportunities offered by a school
    Based on a student’s race, color, national origin, sex, disability, or religion*
    Although the US Department of Education, under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 does not directly cover religion, often religious based harassment is based on shared ancestry of ethnic characteristics which is covered. The US Department of Justice has jurisdiction over religion under Title IV of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
    What are the federal civil rights laws ED and DOJ enforce?

    A school that fails to respond appropriately to harassment of students based on a protected class may be violating one or more civil rights laws enforced by the Department of Education and the Department of Justice, including:
    Title IV and Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972
    Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
    Titles II and III of the Americans with Disabilities Act
    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
    Do federal civil rights laws cover harassment of LGBT youth?

    Title IX and Title IV do not prohibit discrimination based solely on sexual orientation, but they protect all students, including students who are LGBT or perceived to be LGBT, from sex-based harassment.
    Harassment based on sex and sexual orientation are not mutually exclusive. When students are harassed based on their actual or perceived sexual orientation, they may also be subjected to forms of sex discrimination recognized under Title IX.
    What is an example of a case were harassment based on sex and sexual orientation overlap?

    A female high school student was spit on, slammed into lockers, mocked, and routinely called names because she did not conform to feminine stereotypes and because of her sexual orientation. The student had short hair, a deep voice, and wore male clothing. After the harassment started, she told some classmates she was a lesbian, and the harassment worsened. The school described the harassment as “sexual orientation harassment” in its incident reports and did not take any action.
    In this case, the student was harassed based on her non-conformity to gender stereotypes. In this case, then, although the school labeled the incident as “sexual orientation harassment,” the harassment was also based on sex and covered under Title IX.
    What are a school’s obligations regarding harassment based on protected classes?

    Anyone can report harassing conduct to a school. When a school receives a complaint they must take certain steps to investigate and resolve the situation.

    Immediate and appropriate action to investigate or otherwise determine what happened.
    Inquiry must be prompt, thorough, and impartial.
    Interview targeted students, offending students, and witnesses, and maintain written documentation of investigation
    Communicate with targeted students regarding steps taken to end harassment
    Check in with targeted students to ensure that harassment has ceased
    When an investigation reveals that harassment has occurred, a school should take steps reasonably calculated to:
    End the harassment,
    Eliminate any hostile environment,
    Prevent harassment from recurring, and
    Prevent retaliation against the targeted student(s) or complainant(s).
    What should a school do to resolve a harassment complaint?

    Appropriate responses will depend on the facts of each case.
    School must be an active participant in responding to harassment and should take reasonable steps when crafting remedies to minimize burdens on the targeted students.
    Possible responses include:
    Develop, revise, and publicize:
    Policy prohibiting harassment and discrimination
    Grievance procedures for students to file harassment complaints
    contact information for Title IX/Section 504/Title VI coordinators
    Implement training for staff and administration on identifying and addressing harassment
    Provide monitors or additional adult supervision in areas where harassment occurs
    Determine consequences and services for harassers, including whether discipline is appropriate
    Limit interactions between harassers and targets
    Provide harassed student an additional opportunity to obtain a benefit that was denied (e.g., retaking a test/class).
    Provide services to a student who was denied a benefit (e.g., academic support services).
    Are there resources for schools to assist with resolving harassment complaints?

    The Department of Justice’s Community Relations Service is the Department’s “peacemaker” for community conflicts and tensions arising from differences of race, color and national origin and to prevent and respond to violent hate crimes committed on the basis of: gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, religion, disability, race, color, and national origin. It is a free, impartial, confidential and voluntary Federal Agency that offers mediation, conciliation, technical assistance, and training.

    What if the harassment continues?

    If harassment persists, consider filing a formal grievance with the district and contacting the U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights and from the U.S. Department of Justice’s Civil Rights Division.

  • Respondjustice

    Stop Bullying on the Spot

    When adults respond quickly and consistently to bullying behavior they send the message that it is not acceptable. Research shows this can stop bullying behavior over time. There are simple steps adults can take to stop bullying on the spot and keep kids safe.

    Do:

    Intervene immediately. It is ok to get another adult to help.
    Separate the kids involved.
    Make sure everyone is safe.
    Meet any immediate medical or mental health needs.
    Stay calm. Reassure the kids involved, including bystanders.
    Model respectful behavior when you intervene.
    Avoid these common mistakes:

    Don’t ignore it. Don’t think kids can work it out without adult help.
    Don’t immediately try to sort out the facts.
    Don’t force other kids to say publicly what they saw.
    Don’t question the children involved in front of other kids.
    Don’t talk to the kids involved together, only separately.
    Don’t make the kids involved apologize or patch up relations on the spot.
    Get police help or medical attention immediately if:

    A weapon is involved.
    There are threats of serious physical injury.
    There are threats of hate-motivated violence, such as racism or homophobia.
    There is serious bodily harm.
    There is sexual abuse.
    Anyone is accused of an illegal act, such as robbery or extortion—using force to get money, property, or services.
    Next Steps

    Support the kids involved

  • Addiction

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  • Articles Boston

    State Cyberstalking and Cyberharassment Laws

    (Does not include cyberbullying laws. See NCSL’s cyberbullying page.)
    Overview | State Statutes

    Last update: March 23, 2012
    PLEASE NOTE:  The National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) serves state legislators and their staff. This site provides comparative information only and should not be construed as legal advice. NCSL cannot provide assistance with individual cases.
    Overview

     Many states have enacted “cyberstalking” or “cyberharassment” laws or have laws that explicitly include electronic forms of communication within more traditional stalking or harassment laws. In addition, recent concerns about protecting minors from online bullying or harassment have led states to enact “cyberbullying” laws. This chart identifies only state laws that include specific references to electronic communication. However, other state laws may still apply to those who harass, threaten or bully others online, although specific language may make the laws easier to enforce. This chart classifies the various state laws addressing these three different types of online behaviors, as described below.
    Cyberstalking.  Cyberstalking is the use of the Internet, email or other electronic communications to stalk, and generally refers to a pattern of threatening or malicious behaviors. Cyberstalking may be considered the most dangerous of the three types of Internet harassment, based on a posing credible threat of harm. Sanctions range from misdemeanors to felonies.

    Cyberharassment. Cyberharassment differs from cyberstalking in that it is generally defined as not involving a credible threat. Cyberharassment usually pertains to threatening or harassing email messages, instant messages, or to blog entries or websites dedicated solely to tormenting an individual. Some states approach cyberharrassment by including language addressing electronic communications in general harassment statutes, while others have created stand-alone cyberharassment statutes.

    * Note: This chart does not cover cyberbullying laws. Cyberbullying and cyberharassment are sometimes used interchangeably, but cyberbullying generally refers to electronic harassment or bullying among minors within a school context. See the NCSL’s Education Program’s cyberbullying page for more information on cyberbullyings laws and legislation.
    See also:  State laws related to electronic solicitation or luring of children, Internet filtering laws–schools and libraries, and NCSL LegisBrief: Protecting Children Online.

    State/Territory

    Cyberstalking

    Cyberharassment

    Alabama
     
    Ala. Code § 13A-11-8
    Alaska 
    Alaska Stat. §§ 11.41.260, 11.41.270
     
    Arizona 
     
    Ariz. Rev. Stat. § 13-2921                                              
    Arkansas 
    Ark. Code § 5-41-108
     Ark. Code § 5-41-108
    California 
    Cal. Civil Code § 1708.7, Cal Penal Code § 646.9 
    Cal. Penal Code §§ 422,  653.2,  653m
    Colorado 
    Colo. Rev. Stat. §§ 18-602, 18-9-111
     Colo. Rev. Stat. § 18-9-111
    Connecticut 
       Conn. Gen. Stat. § 53a-182b, 53a-183
    Delaware 
       Del. Code tit. 11 § 1311
    Florida 
    Fla. Stat. § 784.048
     Fla. Stat. § 784.048
    Georgia 
    Georgia Code § 16-5-90
     
    Hawaii
       Hawaii Rev. Stat. § 711-1106
     Idaho  Idaho Stat. §§ 18-7905, 18-7906  
    Illinois 
    720 ILCS §§ 5/12-7.5, 740 ILCS 21/10
    720 ILCS §§ 135/1-2, 135/1-3, 135/2
    Indiana
       Ind. Code § 35-45-2-2 
    Iowa 
       Iowa Code § 708.7
    Kansas
    Kan. Stat. § 21-3438
     
     Kentucky    
    Louisiana
    La. Rev. Stat. §§ 14:40.2, 14:40.3
     
    Maine
     Me. Rev. Stat. tit 17A § 210A (see 2007 Me. Laws, Ch. 685, sec. 3)  
    Maryland 
     
     Md. Code tit. 3 § 3-805
    Massachusetts
    Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 265 § 43 
     Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 265 § 43A
    Michigan 
    Mich. Comp. Laws §§ 750.411h, 750.411i
     Mich. Comp. Laws § 750.411s
    Minnesota 
    Minn. Stat. § 609.749
     Minn. Stat. § 609.795
    Mississippi 
    Miss. Code §§ 97-45-15, 97-45-17, 97-3-107
     Miss. Code § 97-29-45
    Missouri 
    Mo. Rev. Stat. § 565.225
     Mo. Rev. Stat. § 565.090
    Montana
    Mont. Code Ann. § 45-5-220
     Mont. Code Ann. § 45-8-213
     Nebraska    
    Nevada
    Nev. Rev. Stat. § 200.575
     
    New Hampshire 
       N.H. Rev. Stat. § 644:4
     New Jersey  N.J. Stat. § 2C:12-10, 2C:12-10.1 *  
     New Mexico
     N.M. Stat. § 30-3A-3 *  
    New York 
       New York Penal Law § 240.30
    North Carolina 
    N.C. Gen. Stat. §§ 14-196.3
     N.C. Gen. Stat. § 14-196(b)
    North Dakota 
     
     N.D. Cent. Code § 12.1-17-07
    Ohio 
    Ohio Rev. Code § 2903.211 
     Ohio Rev. Code §§ 2917.21(A), 2913.01(Y)
    Oklahoma 
    Okla. Stat. tit. 21 § 1173
     Okla. Stat. tit. 21 § 1172
    Oregon 
    Or. Rev. Stat. §§ 163.730 to 163.732
     Or. Rev. Stat. § 166.065
    Pennsylvania 
    Pa. Cons. Stat. tit. § 18 2709.1
     Pa. Cons. Stat. tit. 18 § 2709(a), 2709(f)
    Rhode Island 
    R.I. Gen. Laws § 11-52-4.2  
     R.I. Gen. Laws § 11-52-4.2 
    South Carolina
    S.C. Code §§ 16-3-1700(C), 16-3-1700(F)
     S.C. Code §§ 16-3-1700(B), 16-3-1700(C), 16-17-430
    South Dakota
    S.D. Cod. Laws § 22-19A-1
     S.D. Cod. Laws § 49-31-31
    Tennessee
    Tenn. Code § 39-17-315
     Tenn. Code § 39-17-308
    Texas
       Tx. Penal Code § 33.07
    Utah
    Utah Code § 76-5-106.5
       Utah Code § 76-9-201
     
    Vermont 
    Vt. Stat. tit. 13 §§ 1061, 1062, 1063
    Vt. Stat. tit. 13 § 1027
    Virginia 
    Va. Code § 18.2-60 
     Va. Code § 18.2-152.7:1 
    Washington
    Wash. Rev. Code §§ 9A.46.110, 9.61.260
     Wash. Rev. Code §§ 9A.46.020, 10.14.020
    West Virginia
     
     W. Va. Code § 61-3C-14a  
    Wisconsin 
     
    Wis. Stat. § 947.0125 
    Wyoming 
    Wyo. Stat. § 6-2-506 
     
    Territories:

     

     

      Guam   X.G.C.A. tit. 9 §§ 19.69, 19.70   X.G.C.A. tit. 9 §§ 19.69, 19.70
    *  Statute does not specify “electronic” or “Internet,” but refers to stalking “by any action, method, device or means….”

  • INTERNET VIGILANCE

     
    GREECE, N.Y. (AP) — Max Sidorov was so moved by the story of a bullied New York school bus monitor that he started an online campaign to raise money to send Karen Klein on vacation.
    His goal was $5,000.
    But the campaign had far exceeded that amount when it ended Friday night, raising more than $700,000.
    A
    spokeswoman for the fundraising site Indiegogo said more than 30,000
    people from all over the world contributed, with donations coming in
    from at least 84 countries and all 50 states. The site listed the raised
    amount as $703,873 Saturday morning.
    Sidorov,
    a 25-year-old Canadian, came up with the idea for the monthlong
    campaign for the 68-year-old suburban Rochester grandmother. He said he
    was moved by a 10-minute video posted online showing Klein enduring
    profanity, insults and threats from middle school students on a
    school bus.
    The
    school system in the town of Greece has suspended four seventh-grade
    students for a year. At least three of the boys issued written apologies
    to Klein.
    Sidorov said he was as surprised as anyone with the final result of his posting, which also recorded nearly 28,000 comments.
    “I
    think that people just love rallying around a great cause, especially
    helping someone in need or who has been abused or can’t stand up for
    themselves,” Sidorov said by phone from Toronto on Friday. “It just
    shows there are so many great people in the world. It warms my heart to
    see that.”
    Read more: http://www.seattlepi.com/news/article/Online-campaign-for-bullied-NY-woman-hits-700-000-3724599.php#ixzz21GTlIVx2

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